Back in the year 2020, Researchers at UCLA's David Geffen School of Medicine and the Veterans Administration Healthcare Division in Los Angeles conducted a experiment regarding Nutrasumma's Fermented Pea Protein on how it aids in nutrition and weight loss.
High protein calorie restriction diets have shown clinical efficacy for obesity, but the mechanisms are not fully known. The intestinal microbiome is a mediator of obesity and preclinical data support an effect of high protein diet (HPD) on the gut microbiome of obesity, but there are few studies in humans.
Long-term dietary patterns are correlated with microbiome composition and interventional diets can rapidly change microbial composition, raising the possibility that the microbiome is involved in the response to weight loss diets.
Our study has several key advantages compared to prior studies. It included a larger numberof subjects, greater racial/ethnic diversity, frequent fecal sampling during longitudinal follow-up(six samples over 8 weeks), and high-depth sequencing with NovaSeq to allow for detection of rare taxa. However, it does have several limitations.
The use of dietary counseling rather than meal replacement introduces additional variation into the study due to incomplete adherence and heterogeneity of patient dietary choices. The cohort was male-predominant, so the results may not be applicable to females. In addition, while the study was larger than prior ones, it did not have enough subjects to be powered to detect a diﬀerence in clinical outcomes such as weight loss.
Finally, the microbiome analysis was based on 16S rRNA sequencing, which provides data on microbial composition but not on microbial gene content or function.
In summary, we provide evidence that HPDs modulate intestinal microbiome composition in obesity. These ﬁndings support the hypothesis that microbial changes inﬂuence the outcomes of high protein dietary interventions. Additional studies with larger cohort size and longer duration are required to determine to what extent longitudinal changes in the microbiome.
Incorporation of metagenomics and metabolomics to provide functional microbiome data may provide insight into mechanistic pathways that could undergo further study in preclinical models. Additional future directions could include a comparison of diﬀerent protein sources and/or HPDs of varying protein content.
Further understanding of the link between the microbiome and the beneﬁcial eﬀects of a high protein diet may spur development of therapies for obesity that directly target the microbiome to complement dietary modiﬁcation.